Tuzla Canton is located in the northeastern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the seat of the Cantonal Government is in Tuzla, which is cultural, university and clinical center. The Canton is characterized by extremely mountainous area (Konjuh, Javornik, Ozren) in the south, the vast river valleys Spreča and Tinje in the central part and ranges Skipovac, Trebava and Majevica extending from northwest to southeast. This area is rich with rivers, mountain rivers, rapids and there are even several artificial lakes. Municipality of Kladanj, especially mountain Konjuh, is overed with tick forest.
By the 2013 census, 477,278 people are living in Tuzla Canton.
The area of Tuzla Canton has a moderate continental climate with clearly distinguished seasons and an average annual temperature of 10.1ºC. The warmest month with average temperature of 20.7ºC is July, and the coldest month is January with temperature being around 0.2ºC.