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Human settlements on the river Neretva, between the Hum Hill and the Velež Mountain, have existed since prehistory, as witnessed by discoveries of fortified enceintes and cemeteries. Evidence of Roman occupation was discovered beneath the present town.
Not much is known about the medieval Mostar, although the Christian basilicas of late antiquity remained in use.
The name of Mostar was first mentioned in a document dating from 1474, taking its name from the bridgekeepers (mostari); this refers to the existence of a wooden bridge from the market on the left bank of the river which was used by traders, soldiers, and other travelers. Since Mostar was on the trade route between the Adriatic and the mineral-rich regions of central Bosnia, the settlement began to spread to the right bank of the river.
However, prior to the 1474 the names of two towns appear in medieval historical sources, along with their later medieval territories and properties – the towns of Nebojša and Cimski grad. In the early 15th century the late medieval county of Večenike covered the site of the present-day Mostar along the right bank of the Neretva: Zahum, Cim, Ilići, Hraštani and Vojno. It was at the center of this area, which in 1408 belonged to the Radivojević's, that Cim fort was built (prior to 1443). Mostar is indirectly referred to in a charter of King Alfonso V of Aragon dating from 1454 as Pons (Bridge), for a bridge had already been built there. Prior to 1444, the Nebojša fort was built on the left bank of the Neretva, which belonged to the late medieval county still known as Večenike or Večerić. The earliest documentary reference to Mostar as a settlement dates from 3 April 1452.
In 1468 Mostar came under Ottoman rule and the urbanization of the settlement began. Following the unwritten oriental rule, the town was organized into two distinct areas: čaršija, the crafts and commercial center of the settlement, and mahala or a residential area. In 1468 Mostar acquired the name Köprühisar, meaning fortress at the bridge, at the center of which was a cluster of 15 houses. The town was fortified between the years 1520 and 1566, and the wooden bridge was rebuilt in stone.
The stone bridge, Stari Most (Old Bridge), was erected in 1566 on the orders of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman ruler. Later becoming the city's symbol, Stari Most is one of the most important structures of the Ottoman era and was built by Mimar Hayrudin, a student of the famous Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan. In the late 16th century, Mostar was the chief administrative city for the Ottoman Empire in the Herzegovina region.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire absorbed Mostar in 1878 and it ruled there until the aftermath of World War I in 1918. The first church in the city of Mostar, a Serbian Christian-Orthodox Church, was built during the Austro-Hungarian rule. In 1881 the town became the seat of the Bishopric of Mostar-Duvno and in 1939, it became a part of the Banovina of Croatia. During World War II Mostar was also an important city in the Independent State of Croatia.
After the World War II, Mostar developed a production of plastics, tobacco, bauxite, wine, aircraft and aluminium products. Several dams (Grabovica, Salakovac, Mostar) were built in the region to harness the hydroelectric power of the Neretva. The city was a major industrial and tourist center and prospered economically during the time of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
Between 1992 and 1993, after Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia, the town was subject to an 18 month siege. The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) first bombed Mostar in April 1992 and over the following week gradually established control over a large part of the town. By 12 June 1992 the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) amassed enough strength to force the JNA out of Mostar. The JNA responded with shelling. Amongst the monuments destroyed were a Franciscan monastery, the Catholic cathedral and the bishop's palace (with a library of 50,000 books), a number of secular institutions as well as the Karadžoz-bey mosque, and thirteen other mosques. In mid June 1992, after the battle line moved eastward, the HVO demolished the Serbian Orthodox Žitomislić Monastery as well as the Saborna Crkva (Orthodox Cathedral Church) that was built in 1863-1873. During the Bosnian War of 1992-95, the Serb Orthodox Cathedral of the Holy Trinity and the Church of the Birth of the Most Holy Virgin, both dating to the mid 19th century, were demolished. The cathedral was also known as the New Orthodox Church, while the latter was known as the Old Orthodox Church. On 18 November 1991, the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) branch in Bosnia and Herzegovina, proclaimed the existence of the Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia, as a separate "political, cultural, economic and territorial whole," on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Mostar was divided into a Western part, which was dominated by the Croat forces and an Eastern part where the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina was largely concentrated. During the war, the Croatian forces have destroyed Stari Most bridge, the symbol of the city, on 9 November 1993.
Since the end of the wider war in 1995, great progress is being made in the reconstruction of the city of Mostar. A monumental project to rebuild the Old Bridge to the original design, and restore surrounding structures and historic neighborhoods was initiated in 1999 and mostly completed by Spring 2004. A grand opening was held on 23 July 2004.
The city excels in the spheres of art, cuisine, music, theater, museums, and literature. One of the most recent film shot in Herzegovina is CIRKUS COLUMBIA from 2010 by Academy Award winner Danis Tanović.

Mostar and Herzegovina in whole have Mediterranean climate strongly influenced by Adriatic Sea. The average annual temperature in Mostar is 15° with January (5°C avg.) being the coldest month of the year and July (24.9 °C avg.) the warmest.
Most parts of Herzegovina have warm summers and mild winters and average sea temperature in Neum (only Bosnian coastal town) ranges from 13°C in January to 28°C in July and August.

105,448 people living in Mostar by estimations made by Federal Office of Statistics.

Mostar is the biggest city in Herzegovina, southern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and it is situated on Neretva river, the largest and one of the most beautiful rivers of the eastern part of the Adriatic basin. Herzegovina terrain varies from hilly karsts to heavily forested areas with fast flowing rivers and high mountains and sunny Adriatic coast.

Herzegovina is spread over 11,419 km², and area of Mostar municipality is 1,175 km².