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Goražde

Goražde

 Goražde is a city and municipality in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina on Drina river. It is located between Foča, Sokolac and Višegrad, and is administratively part of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the center of the Bosnian Podrinje Canton.
With Gornje Podrinje, Goražde was part of the old Serbian State up to 1376, when it was attached to the Bosnian State under the reign  of King Tvrtko. After Tvrtko's death the town was ruled by the Hum Dukes among whom the best known was Herzeg Stjepan. In 1379, Goražde was first mentioned as a trading settlement and in 1444 as a fortress. The origin of the town's name seems to have come from the Slavic word "gorazd". The Goražde market became well known in 1415 when merchants from Dubrovnik had intensive commercial relations with it. The Turks took Goražde over definitively in 1465 and the place assumed oriental features. In 1477 there were four mahals in town. From 1550-1557 Mustafa Sokolović built a stone bridge across the Drina and a caravanserai.
During the Turkish rule, Goražde was a significant trading centre, being at the crossroads of the two important roads: the Bosnian and the Dubrovnik. Two mosques built by the Sijerčić beys date back to the 18th century.
Near Goražde there is an Orthodox church, built in 1446 by Herzeg Stjepan. A printing press, attached to the church, worked there from 1521 till 1531. This was the first printing press to be established in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the second in the Balkans. Printing began with materials used in Sopotnica Church.
The decline of Goražde in the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century is attributed, among other things, to the plague. Up to the middle of the 19th century Goražde was part of the Herzegovinian Sandžak, when it became part of the Sarajevo Sandžak.
Due to its geographical position on the border, Goražde was during World War I one of the main strongholds of Austrian-Hungarian Empire used against Serbia and Montenegro. In pre-war Yugoslavia, Goražde, being no more a frontier town, had normal conditions under which to develop and prosper. In 1941 German troops entered the town after an air-raid on 17 April. Later on Italian troops were also stationed there.
The National Liberation Army took over the town for the first time on 27 January, 1942, and remained there until May of the same year. During this period National Liberation Committees were formed for the town of the district of Goražde on the basis of the Foča Stipulations.
At the same time, Goražde was the headquarters of the National Liberation Army for East Bosnia. Early in March 1942, the Commander-in-Chief, Marshal Tito stayed in Goražde. Goražde was liberated twice more, in 1943 and 1944, and on 6 March, 1945 it was finally liberated from the occupation. Chetnik massacres against ethnic Croats and Bosniaks in December 1941 and January 1942 caused the death of approximately 2,050 civilians.
Before World War II the industry of Goražde comprised mainly retail trade and in some measure wholesale trade, the catering industry, handicraft, transport. During the occupation, 1941–1945, industry was destroyed and about 45% of the existing houses as well.
Since then Goražde's industry has been systematically developing its main branches being manufacturing, building, transport, trade and crafts. In 1981 Goražde's GDP per capita was 70% of the Yugoslav average.
From 1992 to 1995 during the Bosnian War, Goražde was one of six Bosniak enclaves, along with Srebrenica and Žepa, surrounded and besieged by the Bosnian Serb Army. In April 1993 it was made into a United Nations Safe Area in which the United Nations was supposed to protect the civilian population from attack. Between 30 March and 23 April 1994, the Serbs launched a major offensive against the town. After air strikes against Serb tanks and outposts and a NATO ultimatum, Serbian forces agreed to withdraw their artillery and armored vehicles 20 km from the town. After the negotiation of the Dayton accords, a land corridor was established between Goražde and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Some of the most important films made around Goražde are SNOW by Aida Begić from 2008 and BELVEDERE by Ahmed Imamović from 2010. 

CLIMATE
Goražde is characterized by mild continental climate with short winters and long warm summers.

POPULATION
In 1991, in Goražde municipality lived over 37,500 people with 16,200 people living in the city. It is estimated that 26,000 people live in wider Goražde area, today.

GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION
Goražde is situated on the banks of the river Drina in southeast Bosnia and is administratively part of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the cultural and geographic centre of Bosnian Podrinje Canton.
The city lies at the foot of the eastern slope of mountain Jahorina at a height of 345m above sea level. The surrounding of Goražde belongs administratively to Repubic of Srpska.

AREA
Municipality Goražde covers area of 248.8 km².